Cardinal Numbers In Sanskrit

Number Chart (1 to 100) Word एकोन in the chart is used here to represent ‘-1’. One (एक) less than (ऊन) is एकोन. Example : 59 = एकोनषष्टिः (1 less than 60). Word ऊन is also applicable to denote -1 (1 less). Example : 59 can also be written as ऊनषष्टिः. Also observe that rightContinue reading “Cardinal Numbers In Sanskrit”

Valmiki Was A Liar Says Jain Ramayanam

Vimalasuri – Author of Jain Ramayanam Prakrit literature पउम चरियम् (पद्मचरितम् in Sanskrit), in verse form, is the ancient most Ramayanam composed in Jain literature. Vimalasuri is the composer of this poem. He is believed to have lived ~500 yrs after महावीर Mahavir (24th Tirthankar). Vimalasuri has chosen the word Padma पद्म and not RamContinue reading “Valmiki Was A Liar Says Jain Ramayanam”

Sculptures of Trimurti – Brahma, Vishnu, Shiva

This post is a collection of sculptures of Trimurti – Brahma, Vishnu and Shiva, across various geographies, in no specific order. Post will be updated as per findings. Panel From Bihar (~10th Century) Panel of Trimurti (त्रिमूर्ति – विष्णु, महेश, ब्रह्मा from L-R). Antiquity : ~10th c. CE (1100 yrs old). Place : Bihar. AllContinue reading “Sculptures of Trimurti – Brahma, Vishnu, Shiva”

The Earliest Archaeological Evidence of Word Vaishnava

The earliest Archaeological evidence of the word वैष्णव is found on Coin (~250 CE) of the Traikutaka त्रैकूटक kings Dharasena & Vyaghrasena ruling on parts of Gujarat & Maharashtra. They are described as परम वैष्णव in place of the popular ancient term परम भागवत. त्रिकूट (3 hills) symbol is in middle of the coin withContinue reading “The Earliest Archaeological Evidence of Word Vaishnava”

Kushan Inscription At Ladakh (India) & Shiva On Kushan Coins

Kushan Inscription At Ladakh (India) ~2000 yrs ago, Ladakh was ruled by शिवपूजक Kushan king Vima Kadphises (Father of Kanishka) as per his Inscription. • Place – Khaltse Village • Language – Sanskrit (?) • Script – Kharoshthi. Inscription is of two lines only but contains name of the king as Uvima and year 184Continue reading “Kushan Inscription At Ladakh (India) & Shiva On Kushan Coins”

Gupta Inscription – Samudragupta & River Ganga

Fame of Samudragupta समुद्रगुप्त (4th c. CE) is compared with swift flow of River Ganga गंगा in an Inscription. • Place – Prayagraj (Uttar Pradesh) • Language – Sanskrit • Script – Brahmi (Gupta) Notice two important factors in the fame of Samudragupta समुद्रगुप्त, the mightiest emperor of Gupta dynasty – 1) शस्त्र (Military Power)Continue reading “Gupta Inscription – Samudragupta & River Ganga”

Gandhar (Ancient India) and उपरिश्येन (Hindu Kush) Mountain Range

Gandhara Mentioned In Inscription of Iran Bagastan Inscription of Iran and its connection with Gandhara (Ancient India) & Hindu Kush (उपरिश्येन) mountains. • Antiquity : ~500 BCE • Patronage : Darius, Achaemenid Empire Darius, in this Inscription, mentions about ~23 territories under his control. Gandhara is his eastern most territory. 7th line of the InscriptionContinue reading “Gandhar (Ancient India) and उपरिश्येन (Hindu Kush) Mountain Range”

Pratihara Inscription – Mihir Bhoj & Kautiliyan Terminology Vijigishu

Vaillabhattasvamin inscription (876 CE) of Pratihara era eulogized Mihira Bhoja as “Śrīmad Ādivarāha, who wished to conquer the three worlds (trailokyam)” – श्रीमदादिवराहेण त्रैलोक्यं विजिगीषुणा. विजिगीषु word is used for राजा in अर्थशास्त्रम्. General meaning of this term is – The one who has desire of conquest but this meaning doesn’t convey what कौटिल्य wantContinue reading “Pratihara Inscription – Mihir Bhoj & Kautiliyan Terminology Vijigishu”

Female Adultery In Parashara Smriti

In Indian civilization, female in each varna is responsible for producing pure lineage. Such a lineage is responsible to carry on the traditions of their respective varna in society. This way, society’s dharmic fabric remains unharmed as prescribed in various texts of Dharmashastra. Producing pure lineage is a responsibility and so Dharmashastra is very particular about the same. Authors of variousContinue reading “Female Adultery In Parashara Smriti”

Samrat Chandragupta (सम्राट चन्द्रगुप्त) – Historical Novel of Dhumketu

This historical novel – Samrat Chandragupta (सम्राट चन्द्रगुप्त) – is 3rd and last novel in the series of novels, on Chanakya-Chandragupta Maurya pair, written by Dhumketu. From the preceding two, first novel (Part 1) is – Mahamatya Chanakya (महामात्य चाणक्य). Analysis of the same can be read here. In Part 1, Chanakya’s journey from TakshashilaContinue reading “Samrat Chandragupta (सम्राट चन्द्रगुप्त) – Historical Novel of Dhumketu”

Antiquity of Kamasutra and Vatsyayana

In earlier article on kamashastra emphasis on importance of Kamasutra text as a shastra was provided. Vatsyayana’s Kamasutra is the oldest available text in the tradition of kamashastra. In the earlier article, the antiquity of the kamashastra and its author had not been discussed in detail which will be discussed in this part.  In thisContinue reading “Antiquity of Kamasutra and Vatsyayana”

Kamashastram – Origin, Purpose and Message

In Bharatiya Civilization, human life has been divided among four Purusharthas – Dharma, Artha, Kama and Moksha. Kama is the third while Moksha is the last and ultimate goal of the life. To understand Dharma, study of Dharmashastra textsare required. For Artha, Arthashastram and for Moksha, scriptures related to Moksha are required to be studied.Continue reading “Kamashastram – Origin, Purpose and Message”

Kite (पतंग) on Indian Postage Stamps

14-Jan is celebrated as kite flying festival primarily in Gujarat and other few places in our country. Over the period of time, this festival of colours, happiness and togetherness is beautifully acknowledged in postage stamps published in India. In 1991, Stamp having ₹6.50 value was issued as part of tourism year promotion. In this stamp,Continue reading “Kite (पतंग) on Indian Postage Stamps”

Sanskrit in China – Arrival and Discovery

Sanskrit is the ancient most language of India and literature. Since ages, much of the knowledge of tradition, culture and civilization of India is passed down, from generation to generation, in this language only. Some prime forms of this knowledge were – Oral tradition, Manuscripts, Paintings/Drawings, Poems/songs, Inscriptions, printing etc. The reach of Sanskrit wasContinue reading “Sanskrit in China – Arrival and Discovery”

Sanskrit In Sri Lanka – From Bygone To Modern Era

Sanskrit is the oldest language of the world in which civilization and culture took their first breath. It is a fact that this beautiful language flourished on the land which is known as “India that is Bharat” and later on expanded to other regions. Sri Lanka is an ancient geography which is connected with India,Continue reading “Sanskrit In Sri Lanka – From Bygone To Modern Era”

Chandragupta Maurya – Historical Novel of Dhumketu

This novel – Chandragupta Maurya – is in continuation of the preceding novel – Mahamatya Chanakya (Book review can be read here). In preceding novel (Part 1), Chanakya’s journey from Takshashila to Pataliputra and return journey from there are covered. In between, readers get to know about Chanakya’s insult in court of Dhananand and hisContinue reading “Chandragupta Maurya – Historical Novel of Dhumketu”

Mahamatya Chanakya – Historical Novel of Dhumketu

Insult of Chanakya in the court of Dhananand is a turning point in Indian History. It was not an insult of one person but it was an insult of a Brahman … a traditional Brahman … whose only crime was to dream and try to build a strong nation based on foundation of Arthashastra. JustContinue reading “Mahamatya Chanakya – Historical Novel of Dhumketu”

कौटिलीय अर्थशास्त्र में वर्णित स्वधर्म संकल्पना

भारतीय समाज चार वर्णों में विभक्त है – ब्राह्मण, क्षत्रिय, वैश्य और शूद्र l मनुष्य का जीवन भी चार आश्रमों में विभक्त है – ब्रह्मचर्य, गृहस्थ, वानप्रस्थ और संन्यास। ये दो – वर्ण एवं आश्रम (वर्णाश्रम) – भारतीय समाज के आधार स्तम्भ हैं। शताब्दियों से वर्ण एवं आश्रम में बंधा हुआ भारतीय समाज प्राचीनतम सभ्यताओंContinue reading “कौटिलीय अर्थशास्त्र में वर्णित स्वधर्म संकल्पना”

Svadharma (स्वधर्म) In Kautilya’s Arthashastra

Introduction Indian society is composed of four वर्ण – ब्राह्मण, क्षत्रिय, वैश्य and शूद्र. Life span is distributed among four आश्रम (Stages of Life) – ब्रह्मचर्य, गृहस्थ, वानप्रस्थ and सन्न्यास. These two – वर्ण and आश्रम – forms the backbone of Indian society. Over the centuries, society wrapped in वर्ण and आश्रम has nurtured coreContinue reading “Svadharma (स्वधर्म) In Kautilya’s Arthashastra”

Arthashastra – Origin, Tradition and Veneration

नीतिशास्त्रामृतं धीमानर्थशास्त्रमहोदधेः l समुद्दध्रे नमस्तस्मै विष्णुगुप्ताय वेधसे ll (कामन्दकीय-नीतिसारः 1.6) [ Salutation to that wise Vishnugupt, who was proficient and also prudently collated the nectar in form of Niti-shastra from the big ocean of Artha-shastra ] – Kamandakiya–Nitisara 1.6 Human life is divided among four Purushartha – Dharma, Artha, Kama and Moksha. To understand Dharma, study of Dharmashastra texts is essential, For Kama, study of Kamashastra texts while for Moksha, study of texts related to Moksha is essential.Continue reading “Arthashastra – Origin, Tradition and Veneration”